Local anesthesia | the use of local anesthetics such as procaine
Local anesthesia is the use of local anesthetics such as procaine, lidocaine, etc., injected at the corresponding site to block the spinal nerves, nerve plexuses or nerve trunks, and finer peripheral nerve endings, causing temporary loss of sensation in a certain part of the body. The characteristic of local anesthesia is that the anesthesia is confined to the "local" part of the body, and the patient's consciousness is conscious. Commonly used methods include intraspinal anesthesia, nerve block, regional block, local infiltration anesthesia, and topical anesthesia.
Intraspinal anesthesia is the injection of local anesthetic into the spinal canal through a puncture in the spine, which is called a subarachnoid block or lumbar anesthesia and an epidural block. Intraspinal anesthesia is also commonly known as "hemi-anesthesia". The anesthesiologist will operate on your back, and then you will feel numbness in the lower half of your body, and the sensation of pain and touch will disappear.
A nerve block is the injection of a local anesthetic into a nerve trunk in the body to trigger a pain conduction block in the area it innervates. Commonly used nerve blocks include cervical plexus block, brachial plexus block, femoral nerve block, etc.
A regional block is the injection of a local anesthetic around the surgical site to block the nerve endings in the surgical area to achieve anesthesia.
Local infiltration anesthesia is the direct injection of local anesthetics into the surgical site and evenly distributed to all layers of tissue in the entire surgical area to block the conduction of pain. Topical anesthesia is the application of a highly permeable local anesthetic spray or coating on the mucosa, conjunctiva, and other surfaces to produce anesthesia.
Local anesthetics, including the common procaine, lidocaine, bupivacaine, and ropivacaine, are chiefly used for peripheral nerve block and spinal central nerve block. When the nerve is stimulated and an action potential is generated, the permeability of the nerve membrane can be altered, thereby causing the influx of sodium ions and the outflow of potassium ions. Local anesthetics chiefly act on the peripheral nerves by inhibiting the permeability of nerve membranes, blocking the inflow of sodium ions, and preventing the generation of action potentials, and the conduction of nerve impulses, thereby producing local anesthesia.
Side effects of local anesthesia, local anesthesia should be the securest of all anesthesia methods at present. When it comes to its side effects, there are basically two kinds of negative reactions triggered by local anesthetics: The first case, the toxic reaction of local anesthetics, refers to the overdose of local anesthetics or mistaken injection into the blood, although it can be life-threatening in severe cases, but as long as the operator operates according to the standard, the toxic reaction rarely occurs; The second case is an allergic reaction to local anesthetics, such as urticaria, throat edema, bronchospasm, hypotension, etc. In severe cases, shock, breathing, and cardiac arrest may also occur. Local anesthetics are divided into two categories, esters, and amides. There are more allergies to ester local anesthetics, while allergies to amide local anesthetics are extremely rare. Therefore, amide local anesthetics, such as lidocaine, are currently used in clinical practice. , bupivacaine and ropivacaine, etc., so that allergic reactions are also rare. Therefore, local anesthesia should be an anesthesia method with the fewest side effects. Please don't worry too much and use it with peace of mind.
How long will local anesthesia work?
Local anesthesia more often than not restores consciousness about half an hour after the operation.
Local anesthesia more often than not has a relatively small amount of prescriptions, and the scope of anesthesia is relatively small, so the time for the patient to recover from the pain and regain consciousness is relatively fast. More often than not, an anesthesia drug is injected subcutaneously or into the tissue before the operation starts. After the drug takes effect, the operation is started. After the operation, the metabolism of the anesthesia drug will gradually end in about half an hour, and the sensation will gradually recover. Local anesthesia is solely used to perform anesthesia at the site of surgery, so in the course of the entire surgery, the patient is awake, but at the site of the local surgery is not conscious.
Local surgery is generally a mild condition, consequently, don’t worry too much. After surgery, the anesthetics fail, and the patient will soon feel pain in the affected area. Provided that the patient’s pain is more manifest, it is recommended to take some symptomatic therapy with analgesics, such as ibuprofen. Patients who have undergone partial surgery should try not to eat spicy and irritating food, which is not conducive to the recovery of the wound.
The difference between local anesthesia and general anesthesia
The defining components of local and general anesthesia differ in their impact on the patient. The so-called hazards, that is, some complications, can also be avoided. Local anesthesia acts on a local block, such as a nerve root, nerve trunk, or epidural, to exert a half-body or local anesthetic effect. The prescriptions are chiefly local anesthetics. At the same time as the prescriptions are given, the sensory nerves and motor nerves are blocked to varying degrees, and the patient is awake in the course of the operation; general anesthesia is given by intravenous infusion, and sedatives, muscle relaxants, and analgesics are given. The purpose is to make the patient painless, comfortable, and secure. The same between general anesthesia and local anesthesia is that once the drug is administered, the anesthesiologist must monitor blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration, including infusion of fluids into the internal environment to ensure the safety of patients in the course of the perioperative period. The harm of local anesthesia and general anesthesia are assorted, that is, the complications are assorted. Local anesthesia can lead to local anesthetic toxicity; general anesthesia can lead to nausea, vomiting, circulatory respiratory depression, and so on. Experienced anesthesiologists can make appropriate therapy to ensure the safety of patients.
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